Assistant Professor

Research interests

I’m currently exploring three main research routes.

Volcano-hydrothermal systems (VHS)
I first investigated the iconic Kawah Ijen volcano (Indonesia) using seismic and lake-monitoring approaches to better constrain its dynamics and the VHS influence on volcanic activity. I then started studying VHS with multi-disciplinary approaches (combining geochemistry and geophysics) and investigate the existence of precursors prior to hydro-volcanic eruptions. We found precursory signatures to some hydro-volcanic eruptions, but I am now trying to generalize these observations at different volcanoes into a theoretical framework using numerical modeling approaches and artificial intelligence.

Dynamics of volcanic systems using seismic noise
I have contributed to the development of new methodologies to monitor the Earth. I used and developed seismic data mining techniques based on continuous ground vibrations recorded at different volcanoes : the seismic interferometry, the seismic amplitude ratio calculations, and unconventional volcano-seismic tremor analyses. I have recently started working on Machine Learning (ML) approaches to detect hidden signals prior to volcanic eruptions.

Low-frequency rumbles and underwater seismo-acoustics echoes to monitor the Earth 
My first scientific studies quantified carbon dioxide emissions from Indonesian volcanic lakes using hydroacoustic techniques. I then learned the fundamentals of infrasound which radiate acoustic wave below human-hearing threshold (<20 Hz). We analyzed remote seismic and infrasound recordings associated with eruptions, tsunamis and fireballs. Besides remote acoustic signatures to understand volcano dynamics, I am now trying to quantify underwater volcano degassing using seismo-acoustic approaches.

Brief CV

My research is intimately associated with monitoring and imaging the Earth via geophysical approaches. I have mostly investigated the dynamics of hydrothermal

systems and magmas, as well as the triggering and characterization of volcanic and limnic eruptions. Recently, I have become interested in the generation of earthquakes, landslides, fireballs, tsunamis, and tracking lockdown operations during the COVID-19 pandemic. My research most often employs inter-disciplinary approaches.

Main volcanic areas of research : South East Asia (Indonesia and Philippines), Iceland, Africa (Congo), New Zealand, Costa Rica

Areas of expertiseAutomatic word wrap

My research focusses on volcanoes and more specifically seeks to understand magmatic hydrothermal systems (so-called ‘wet volcanoes’) using multi-disciplinary approaches such as continuous seismicity, (hydro-)acoustics and lake monitoring and degassing.

Keywords : Hydrothermal systems and gas-driven eruptions – Magma dynamics – Ambient seismic noise and tremor – Volcanic lakes – Infrasound – Hydroacoustics


2013 Ph.D. in Science, Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium), Royal Observatory of Belgium
Thesis : “Multi-disciplinary monitoring of Kawah Ijen volcano (East Java, Indonesia)”
PhD advisors : Thierry Camelbeeck (ROB), Alain Bernard (ULB)

2009 M.Sc. in Earth sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles (Belgium), Magna cum laude
Master Thesis : « Study of Sirung volcano-hydrothermal system (West Timor, Indonesia)”.


2018-2021:  Chargé de Recherche IRD, ISTerre, Grenoble, France
Main Project : ‘Transitions of volcano activity in volcano-hydrothermal hosted environments’ 

2021- Research Associate INGV, Bologna

2017-2018 Doctor-Assistant, University of Ghent, Belgium 
Main Project : ‘Long-term instabilities of volcano-hydrothermal systems’

2016- 2017 FNRS postdoctoral Fellow, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgium
Main Project : ‘Towards Forecast Hydro-volcanic eruptions’

2015- 2016 Postdoctoral Fellow, University of Cambridge, UK 
Main Project : ‘Constrain the dynamics of 2010 Eyjafjallajökull and 2014-2015 Bárdabunga-Holuhraun eruptions using seismic noise’

2013- 2015 Postdoctoral Fellow, Earth Observatory of Singapore, Magma Transport Dynamics – Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
Main Project – ‘Using an infrasonic array in Singapore to monitor volcanoes’


PhD formal co-supervisor
• A. Yates : ‘Towards an understanding of magma transport and storage mechanisms before explosive eruption by seismic interferometry and study of deformation’ (October 2021, ISTerre)
• E. Ndenzako : “Infrasound characterization of landslides in the Bujumbura region, Burundi” (started in September 2019, ULiège)
• J. Subira : “Machine Learning classification of volcano-seismic events in the Virunga Volcanic Province” (started in January 2020, ULiège)
• S. Nowé : ‘Characterization of cryoseismic and volcano seismic sources in the Vatnajokull icecap region’ (started in October 2019, ULB)
• R. Machacca : ‘Artificial intelligence to process massive seismic data and improve eruption forecasting of volcanoes in Peru’ (started in March 2020, ISTerre)

PhD informal co-supervisor :
• C. Donaldson : “Seismic velocity variations at Kilauea volcano and during the 2014-2015 Bárdabunga-Holuhraun eruptions”, University of Cambridge (ongoing)
• R. De Plaen : “Single‐station monitoring of volcanoes using seismic ambient noise”, University of Luxembourg (successfully defended in November 2017)

Co-supervisor of Master Theses :
1. Z. Spica : “H/V study of Kawah Ijen volcano” – May 2011 – Université Libre de Bruxelles.
2. G. van Kriekinge : “Volcano-seismic events location during the 2011-2012 crisis of Kawah Ijen volcano” – September 2013 – Université Libre de Bruxelles
3. M. Draps : “Study of Kawah Ijen caldera using satellite imagery products and seismic recordings” – June 2015 – Vrije Universiteit of Brussels
J. Subira : “Développement d’un outil de surveillance sismique en zone volcanique comme appui à la prévention des risques éruptifs” –September 2018 -Université de Liège
5. S. Nowe : “Unrest at Öræfajökull in 2017-2018 and its seismic signature” – June 2019 – Université Libre de Bruxelles / Belgium
6. T. Muzellec : ‘Analyse et localisation des perturbations mécaniques dans la structure du volcan Kilauea pendant l’éruption majeur de 2018’ – June 2019 – ISTerre, Grenoble / France
7. A. Verwimp : ‘Linking degassing seeps with the shallow subsurface at the Laacher See volcanic lake (Eifel, Germany)’ – ongoing – UGhent, Belgium

Community Contributions

Co-Leader of the IAVCEI Commission on Volcanic Lakes (


Topic Editor for Volcanica (ongoing)

Springer book : Phreatic Eruptions (ongoing)

Associate Editor for Journal of Geophysical Research-Solid Earth (2019-2021)

Guest Editor

Guest Invited Editor for a Special Volume ‘Volcanic Lake Dynamics and Related Hazards” (Frontiers in Earth Sciences, ongoing)

Guest Invited Editor for a Special Volume ‘Towards Improved Forecasting of Volcanic Eruptions” (Frontiers in Earth Sciences, 2020)

Guest Invited Editor for a Special Volume “Geochemistry and Geophysics of Active Volcanic Lakes” (Geological Society of London, 2017)

Active projects

IS-Noise : Using Seismic Noise to Monitor Iceland (Research Partner – PI : Krístin Jónsdóttir, IMO, Iceland – Icelandic Research Fund, collaborators : Royal Observatory of Belgium, Uppsala University (Sweden) – 2018-2021))

Seismic tremor for real-time tracking of Natural Hazards in Iceland (co-PI – PI : K. Jónsdóttir (IMO, Iceland) and T. Lecocq (ROB, Belgium))

Geodetic and hydrological controls on seismic velocity changes after large earthquakes (Research Partner – PI : M. Savage) – EQC New Zealand, collaborators : GNS Science, U Wellington

Quantifying underwater volcano degassing using novel seismo-acoustic approaches (co-PI / PI : Zack Spica) – Thomas Jefferson Fund – collaborator : U Michigan (US)



As an editor :
C. Caudron, B. Christenson, D. Rouwet. Phreatic eruptions. Book. Springer (ongoing)
D. Rouwet, F. Tassi, A. Mazot, C. Caudron. Volcanic Lake Dynamics and Related Hazards Frontiers in Earth Science (ongoing)
C. Caudron, Y. Aoki, N. Fournier, T. Girona, L. Chardot, Towards Improved Forecasting of Volcanic Eruptions, Frontiers in Earth Science 
T. Ohba, B. Capaccioni and C. Caudron, Geochemistry and Geophysics of Active Volcanic Lakes, SP437, Geological Society of London, London, UK.

As an author :
*with PhD or Ms student

44 Bernard, A., Villacorte, E., Maussen, K., Caudron, C., Robic, J., Maximo, R.P., Rebadulla, R., Bornas, M., Solidum Jr., R., 2021, Carbon dioxide in Taal volcanic lake : a simple gasometer for volcano monitoring, Geophysical Research Letters, 47, e2020GL090884
=> Highlight in Nature Reviews Earth Environment : Scott, E. Volcanic Gasometer. Nat Rev Earth Environ (2020).


43 Lecocq, T., Hicks, S.P., Van Noten, K., van Wijk, K., Koelemeijer, P., De Plaen, R.S., Massin, F., Hillers, G.,…, Caudron C.,…, 2020. Global quieting of high-frequency seismic noise due to COVID-19 pandemic lockdown measures. Science.

42 Inguaggiato C., Pappaterra S., Peiffer, L., Apollaro C., Brusca L., De Rosa R., Rouwet D., Caudron C., Suparjan, ‘Mobility of REE from hyperacid brine to secondary minerals precipitated in volcanic hydrothermal systems : Kawah Ijen volcanic lake (Indonesia)’, Science of The Total Environment, 140133.

41 C. Caudron, M. De Batist, G. Jouve, G. Matte, T. Hermans, A. Flores-Orozco, W. Versteeg, Z. Ghazoui, P. Roux, J. Vandemeulebrouck, and B. Messages in the Bubbles, EOS.

40 Ashton F. Flinders, Caudron, C. Ingrid A. Johanson, Taka’aki Taira, Brian Shiro, Matthew Haney, Seismic velocity variations associated with the 2018 Lower East Rift Zone eruption of Kīlauea, Hawaiʻi, Special Volume on the 2018 Kīlauea eruption, Hawai’i, Bulletin of Volcanology, 82, p.47.

39 Anna B Perttu, Caudron, C., Jelle D Assink, Dirk Metz, Dorianne Tailpied, Brian Perttu, Clément Hibert, David Fee, Dini Nurfiani, M. Muzli, Øystein L Andersen, Benoit Taisne. Reconstruction of the 2018 Tsunamigenic Flank Collapse and Eruptive Activity at Anak Krakatau Based on Eyewitness Reports, Seismo-acoustic and Satellite Observations, Earth and Planetary Science Letters.

38 Jolly, A., Caudron, C., Girona, T., Christenson, B., Carniel, R. ‘Silent’ Dome Emplacement into a Wet Volcano : Observations from an Effusive Eruption at White Island (Whakaari), New Zealand in Late 2012. Geosciences 2020, 10, 142, Special Issue, Exploring and Modeling the Magma-Hydrothermal Regime, Geosciences 10, no. 4 (2020) : 142.

37 Métaxian, J. P., Santoso, A. B., Caudron, C., Cholik, N., Labonne, C., Poiata, Beauducel, F., Monteiller, V., Fahmi, A.A., Rizal, M.H., Nandaka, I.M.A, Migration of seismic activity associated with phreatic eruption at Merapi volcano, Indonesia, Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 106795.

36 Caudron, C., Chardot, L., Girona, T., Aoki, Y., & Fournier, N. Towards Improved Forecasting of Volcanic Eruptions : editorial, Frontiers in Earth Science, 8, 45.

2019Automatic word wrap
35 *Donaldson, C., T. Winder, C. Caudron, R.S. White, Crustal seismic velocity responds to seasonal loading and a magmatic intrusion in Iceland’s Northern Volcanic Zone, Science Advances, 5 (11).

34 Cassidy, M., S. K. Ebmeier, C. Helo, S. F. L. Watt, C. Caudron, A. Odell, K. Spaans et al. « Explosive eruptions with little warning : Experimental petrology and volcano monitoring observations from the 2014 eruption of Kelud, Indonesia. » Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 20 (8), 4218-4247 IF2016 : 3.201.
=> Research Spotlight in EOS : 
“Explosive Volcanic Eruption Powered by Water-Saturated Magma”

33 Corentin Caudron, Társilo Girona, Benoît Taisne, Suparjan, Hendra Gunawan, Kristianto, Kasbani, Change in seismic attenuation as a long-term precursor of gas-driven eruptions, Geology, 10.1130/G46107.1, 47, 7, (632-636).

32 T. Girona, Caudron, C., C. Huber, Origin of the shallow seismicity preceding volcanic eruptions, Origin of shallow volcanic tremor : The dynamics of gas pockets trapped beneath thin permeable media. Journal of Geophysical Research, 124, 4831-4861.

31 *De Plaen S.M., Cannata A., Caudron C., Lecocq T., Cannavo F. Temporal changes of seismic velocity caused by volcanic activity at Mt. Etna revealed by the autocorrelation of ambient seismic noise. Special Issue of Frontiers in Earth Science ‘Towards improved forecasting of volcanic eruptions’, 6, 251.

30 *Yates A., Savage, M.K., Jolly A.D., Caudron C., Hamling I.J. Volcanic, co-seismic, and seasonal changes detected at White Island (Whakaari) volcano, New Zealand, using seismic ambient noise. Geophysical Research Letters, 46, 99-108.

29 Taisne B., Perttu A., Tailped D., Caudron C., Le Pichon A. Atmospheric control on ground and space based early warning system for hazard linked to ash injection into the atmosphere. Book Chapter on Infrasound Monitoring (Challenges and New Perspectives)

2018Automatic word wrap
28 Caudron C., B. Taisne, J. Neuberg, A. Jolly, B. Christenson, T. Lecocq, Suparjan, D. Syahbana, G. Suantika. Anatomy of a hidden phreatic eruption. Earth, Planets and Space, 70:168, Special Issue in Earth, Planets and Space “Towards forecasting phreatic eruptions : Examples from Hakone volcano and some global equivalents”, 70:168.

27 Byrdina, S., Grandis, H., Sumintadireja, P., Caudron, C., Syahbana, D.K., Naffrechoux, E., Gunawan, H., Suantika, G. and Vandemeulebrouck, J., 2018. Structure of the acid hydrothermal system of Papandayan volcano, Indonesia, investigated by geophysical methods. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 358, pp.77-86.

26 Caudron C., Bernard A., Murphy S., Inguaggiato S., Gunawan H. Volcano-hydrothermal system and activity of Sirung volcano (Pantar Island, Indonesia), Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 357, 186-199.

25 Woods J., *Donaldson, C., White R.S., Caudron C., Brandsdóttir B., Hudson T.S., Ágústsdóttir T., Long-period seismicity reveals magma pathways above a laterally propagating dyke during the 2014-15 Bárðarbunga rifting event, Iceland, Earth Planetary Science Letters, 490, 216-229.

24 Caudron C., R.W. White, R.G. Green, J. Woods, T. Ágústsdóttir, *C. Donaldson, T. Greenfield, E. Rivalta, B. Brandsdóttir, 2018. Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analysis of the Bárdabunga-Holuhraun dike propagation and eruption, Journal of Geophysical Research.
=> Research Spotlight in EOS : 
“A novel way to track magma flow”

23 T. Girona, C. Huber, Caudron, C., 2018. Sensitivity to lunar cycles prior to the 2007 phreatic eruption of Ruapehu volcano, Nature Scientific Reports, 8, no. 1 : 1476

22 *Donaldson C., Caudron C., Green R.G., Thelen W.A., White R.S., 2017. Relative seismic velocity variations correlate with deformation at Kilauea volcano, Science Advances 3 (6). IF2016 : 2.492.

21 Caudron C., Campion R., Rouwet D., Capaccioni B., Lecocq T., Syahbana D.K., 2017. Stratification at the Earth’s largest acidic lake and its consequences, Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 459, 28-35.

20 Caudron C., Ohba T., Capaccioni B., 2017. Geochemistry and Geophysics of volcanic lakes : an introduction, Geological Society of London, SP437 (1), 1-8.

19 Perton M., *Spica Z., Caudron C. , 2017. Inversion of the horizontal to vertical spectral ratio in presence of strong lateral heterogeneity, Geophysical Journal International.

18 Van Camp M., de Viron O., Meurers B., Francis O., Watlet A., Caudron C., 2017. Geophysics From Terrestrial Time‐Variable Gravity Measurements, Reviews of Geophysics 55, no. 4, 938-992.

17 Caudron C., Taisne B., Perttu A., Garcés M., Silber E.A., Mialle P., 2016. Infrasound and seismic detections associated with the 7 September 2015 Bangkok fireball. Geoscience Letters, 3(1), p.26.

16 *De Plaen R.S., Lecocq T., Caudron C., Ferrazzini V., Francis O., 2016. Single‐station monitoring of volcanoes using seismic ambient noise. Geophysical Research Letters, 43(16), pp. 8511-8518.

15 Lewicki J.L., Caudron C., van Hinsberg V.J., Hilley G.E., 2016. High spatio-temporal resolution observations of crater lake temperatures at Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia. Bulletin of Volcanology, 78(8), pp. 1-11.

14 Tonini R., Sandri L., Rouwet D., Caudron C., Marzocchi W., Suparjan. 2016. A new Bayesian Event Tree tool to track and quantify volcanic unrest and its application to Kawah Ijen volcano. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems,17(7), pp. 2539-2555. 
=> Research spotlight in EOS :
“A new tool to better forecast volcanic unrest” S. Hall, vol.97, 2016-07-08.

13 Gunawan H., Caudron C., Pallister J. et al., New insights into Kawah Ijen hydrothermal system from the wet volcano workshop experiment, Geological Society of London, Special Publications, 2016, In : Ohba, T., Capaccioni, B., Caudron, C. (eds) Geochemistry and Geophysics of Active Volcanic Lakes, SP437.

12 Caudron C., Mauri G., Williams-Jones G., Lecocq T., Syahbana D.K., De Plaen R., Peiffer L., Bernard A., Saracco G. New insights into the Kawah Ijen hydrothermal system from geophysical data, Geological Society of London, Special Publications, 2016, In : Ohba, T., Capaccioni, B., Caudron, C. (eds) Geochemistry and Geophysics of Active Volcanic Lakes, SP437.

11 Caudron C., Taisne B., Kugaenko Y., Saltykov V. ,2015. Magma migration at the onset of the 2012-13 Tolbachik eruption revealed by Seismic Amplitude Ratio Analyses. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Special issue on Tolbachik 2012-2013 eruption, 307, 60-67.

10 Caudron C., Taisne, B., Garces, M., Le Pichon, A, Mialle, P. ,2015. On the use of remote infrasound and seismic stations to constrain eruptive sequence and intensity during the 2014 Kelud eruption. Geophysical Research Letters, 42, 6614-6621, doi : 10.1002/2015GL064885.

Caudron C., Lecocq T., Syahbana D.K., Watlet A., Camelbeeck T., Bernard A., S. Surono. ,2015. Stress and mass changes during the 2011-2012 volcanic unrest at Kawah Ijen volcano (East Java, Indonesia). Journal of Geophysical Research, 120, 5117-5134.

8 *Spica Z., Caudron C., Lecocq T., Perton M., Piña-Flores J., Camelbeeck T., Legrand D., Syahbana D.,2015. Velocity models and site effect at Kawah Ijen volcano and Ijen caldera (Indonesia) from correlation of ambient noise. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 302, 173-189, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.06.016.

7 Caudron C., Syahbana D.K., Lecocq T., Van Hinsberg V., McCausland W., Triantafyllou A., Camelbeeck T., Bernard A., Surono.,2015. Kawah Ijen volcanic activity : a review. Bulletin of Volcanology, 77(3), 39 pp.

6 Krischer L., Megies T., Barsch R., Beyreuther M., Lecocq T., Caudron C., Wassermann J. ObsPy : A Bridge for Seismology into the Scientific Python Ecosystem. Computational Science & Discovery 8 014003, doi:10.1088/1749-4699/8/1/014003.

5 Gunawan H., Pallister J., Caudron C. Multidisciplinary Monitoring Experiments at Kawah Ijen Volcano, Eos Trans. AGU, 95(48), 447, doi : 10.1002/2014EO480003.

4 Syahbana D., Caudron C., Lecocq T., Jousset P., Camelbeeck T., Bernard A., Surono S., 2014. Fluid dynamics inside a ‘wet’ volcano inferred from the complex frequencies of long-period (LP) events : An example from Papandayan volcano, West Java, Indonesia, during the 2011 seismic unrest., Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, Vol. 280, 76-89, doi : 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2014.05.005.

3 Lecocq, T., Caudron C., F. Brenguier, 2014. MSNoise : a Python package for computing and monitoring seismic velocity changes using ambient seismic noise, Seismological Research Letters, vol. 85, 715-726, doi:10.1785/0220130073.

Caudron C., Multi-disciplinary continuous monitoring of Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia, PhD Thesis, ULB, Brussels, Belgium.

2 Campion R., Martinez-Cruz M., Lecocq T., Caudron C., Pacheco J., Pinardi G., Hermans C., Carn S., Bernard A. ,2012. Space- and ground-based measurements of sulphur dioxide emissions from Turrialba Volcano (Costa Rica). Bulletin of Volcanology, vol. 74, 1757–1770, doi:10.1007/s00445-012-0631-z.

1 Caudron C., Mazot A., Bernard A. ,2012. Carbon dioxide dynamics in Kelud volcanic lake. Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 117, doi:10.1029/2011JB008806.

T. Camelbeeck, Lecocq, T., Syahbana, D., Caudron C., Surono Surono (2014). Cooperation in Volcano-Seismology between the Royal Observatory of Belgium and the Indonesia Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation, Bulletin des Séances de l’Académie Royale des Sciences d’Outre-Mer. 01/2013 ; 59(2-4):407-417.

Conference abstracts cited

Caudron C., Bernard, A. Hydroacoustic quantifications of CO2 bubbles in volcanic lakes. 7th Workshop on Volcanic Lakes, 2010, Costa Rica.
Caudron C., Lecocq T., Syahbana D.K., Camelbeeck T., Bernard A., Surono. Multi-disciplinary continuous monitoring of Kawah Ijen volcano, East Java, Indonesia. AGU Fall Meeting 2012, San Francisco, USA.